HPV Vaccination Dramatically Reduces Cervical Cancer Rates; Everything You Should Know About The Vaccine

Published Nov 8, 2021

Abigail Seaberg

Everything You Need to Know about the HPV Vaccine

  • Researchers from the U.K. found that HPV vaccines have not only significantly reduced the risks of women developing cervical cancer but also precancerous changes. The findings showed that HPV vaccines have reduced the cervical cancer rates of U.K. women by up to 87 percent.
  • Nearly every sexually-active person will get the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection at some point in their lives.
  • Nearly all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV, but people should also be aware that HPV puts both men and women at risk of developing several other cancers as well including cancers of the vagina, penis, anus and throat.

New research shows that HPV vaccines have reduced the cervical cancer rates of U.K. women by up to a whopping 87 percent.

According to the new study,  the HPV vaccine reduced cervical cancer rates by 34 percent for those who received it at ages 16 to 18, 62 percent for participants ages 14 to 16 and 87 percent for ages 12 to 13. And for precancerous changes to the cervix like grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, there was a 39 percent risk reduction for participants between ages 16 and 18, 75 percent for those between 14 and 16; and 97 percent for those between 12 and 13.

In the United States, there’s been strong data supporting the benefits of HPV vaccination as well. Even as early as four years after the Gardasil HPV vaccine was licensed in the U.S. in late 2006, vaccine-type HPV infections decreased by 56 percent among 14- to 19-year-old females. Then, within ten years of the vaccine introduction, infections with the four HPV-types targeted by Gardasil decreased by 86 percent among 14- to 19-year-old females and 71 percent among 20- to 24-year-old females in the U.S.

Here’s all you need to know about the vaccine and its benefits.

What is HPV?

Nearly every sexually-active person will get HPV at some point in their lives, but most people with the infection do not know they have it and never develop symptoms or health problems from it. The virus is spread via sexual activity and can manifest as warts on your genitals or mouth.

Get the Facts: HPV Can Cause Cancer in Men Too

When people talk about HPV and cancer risk, they tend to focus on cervical cancer. And while it’s true that nearly all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV, people should also be aware that HPV puts both men and women at risk of developing several other cancers as well including cancers of the vagina, penis, anus and throat.

RELATED: HPV-Related Cancers Are on the Rise And More Than 70 Cancer Centers Call for Urgent Action to Increase Vaccinations; What You Need to Know to Protect Your Child’s Health

Oral and throat cancers, for example, are both on the rise in young, non-smoking adults, and Dr. Allen S. Ho, an oncologist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, says HPV is the cause.

“The fastest-growing segment of the people developing oral cancers are young non-smokers,” Dr. Ho told SurvivorNet in a previous interview. “HPV, a very common virus, one responsible for the vast majority of cervical cancers, is now identified as a cause of this rapid rise of oral cancers.”

Which HPV Vaccines Are Available?

Thankfully, we have three types of HPV vaccines – Gardasil 9, Gardasil and Cervarix. All three went through years of extensive safety testing before being approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the CDC reports that HPV vaccination has the potential to prevent more than 90 percent of HPV-attributable cancers.

The HPV vaccines, like other immunizations that guard against viral infection, stimulate the body to produce antibodies that attack if they encounter the HPV infection by binding to the virus and preventing it from infecting cells. HPV vaccines do not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases or treat existing HPV infections/HPV-caused disease, but their implementation can reduce the rates of certain cancers.

And while Dr. Susan Vadaparampil, the associate center director of community outreach, engagement and equity at Moffitt Cancer Center, previously told SurvivorNet there are few medical strategies that totally prevent against getting cancer in the first place, she emphasized that data from countries with high rates of vaccine coverages shows decreases in HPV-related pre-cancer and cancer – particularly so in the case of cervical cancer.

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“We have a safe and effective vaccine to prevent HPV-related cancer,” Dr. Vadaparampil told SurvivorNet. “It is widely available, and costs are typically covered by private or public insurance.”

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Eileen Duffey-Lind, a pediatric nurse practitioner at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Children’s Hospital, echoed Dr. Vadaparampil’s sentiment.

“No one should die of a preventable cancer like those tied to HPV, especially since we have a highly effective and safe vaccine available,” Duffey-Lind previously told SurvivorNet.

Who Should Get the HPV Vaccine?

According to the CDC, the HPV vaccine is recommended for all preteens (both girls and boys) 11 to 12 years old in two doses administered between six and 12 months apart. The series of shots can also be started as early as 9 years old.

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That being said, the CDC also says that teens and young adults through age 26 who didn’t start or finish the HPV vaccine series also need the vaccine. And people with weakened immune systems or teens and young adults who start the series between the ages of 15 and 26 should get three doses instead of two.

Additionally, the HPV vaccine is sometimes administered in adults up to 45 years old, but it is not recommended for everyone older than 26. Still, a person older than 26 might decide to get vaccinated after talking to their doctor about possible benefits even though it is less effective in this age range since more people have already been exposed to HPV by this time.

What Are The Possible Side Effects?

With more than 120 million doses of HPV vaccines distributed in the United States, there is plenty of data showing the safety of HPV vaccines. But, like any vaccine, there are possible side effects.

According to the CDC, the most common side effects are pain, redness or swelling in the arm where the vaccine was given, dizziness, fainting (which is more common among adolescents after receiving any vaccine), nausea and headache. With the exception of fainting, there have been no confirmed adverse HPV vaccination side effects occurring at higher than expected rates.

Anaphylaxis, a serious allergic reaction, occurs very rarely after any vaccine – including HPV vaccines. The CDC says that anaphylaxis following vaccination in the U.S. has a reported rate of three cases per one million doses administered.

HPV Vaccine Hesitancy

Doctors say the benefit of having your child get the HPV vaccine outweighs any possible concerns, but timing is important. Duffey-Lind says the immune response is “significantly stronger” in those vaccinated before age 15.

“The greatest benefits for HPV vaccination occur when adolescents are vaccinated at younger ages,” Dr. Vadaparampil previously told SurvivorNet. “Their immune response is better, and they are less likely to have been exposed to the virus. Also, two doses are required if the vaccine series is started at age 14 or before, compared to three doses required after that age. Thus, waiting for a child to be older, may lead to missed opportunity to be maximally protected.”

So why are people hesitant to protect themselves and their children? One reason may be that there is a myth that that the HPV vaccine can cause autism.

Don’t be Swayed by Myths: The HPV Vaccine Is Completely Safe

“The HPV vaccines do not cause autism, there’s always a risk of some vaccine-related side effects … local site injection pain, some redness, some swelling,” says Dr. Jessica Geiger, a medical oncologist at Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center. “There are no syndromes such as autism or other neurologic symptoms that have been linked to the HPV vaccines.”

Dr. Geiger also wants people to remember that, although you might not want to think about it, your children will likely participate in sexual activities at some point in their lives. Refusing to vaccinate your children denies them available protection from HPV-linked diseases, and that should be more important than not wanting to think about your kids ever having sex.

“The fact is that the majority of us are going to participate in sexual activity at some point in our lives,” Dr. Geiger said. “It’s unreasonable to think that just because your child isn’t engaging in sexual activity now that they won’t later in life.”

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