Bladder Cancer Clinical Trial
Testing the PD-1 Inhibitor Pembrolizumab as Maintenance Therapy After Initial Chemotherapy in Metastatic Bladder Cancer
This is a multi-institutional, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded phase II trial of maintenance pembrolizumab versus placebo after first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer who have achieved at least stable disease on first-line chemotherapy.
OUTLINE: This is a multi-center trial.
Eligible subjects will be 1:1 randomized to placebo (Control Arm A) and pembrolizumab (Experimental Arm B). Stratification factors for randomization: presence of visceral metastatic disease (lung, liver, or bone or other organs vs. lymph node only) at the time of initiation of first-line chemotherapy, and response to first-line chemotherapy (CR/PR vs. SD. Subjects who progress on placebo will be assessed to determine if they are eligible to cross over to unblinded treatment with pembrolizumab.
For Control Arm A, commercially available normal saline will be used as the placebo. No active placebo drug will be mixed with the normal saline.
For Experimental Arm B, pembrolizumab (or placebo), 200 mg intravenous infusion (IV) every 3 weeks for up to 12 months, or until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity.
The following required laboratory values must be obtained within fourteen days prior to registration for protocol therapy:
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1,500 /mcL
Platelets ≥100,000 / mcL
Hemoglobin ≥8.5 g/dL
Creatinine ≤1.5x ULN OR
Measured or calculated creatinine clearance ≥30 mL/min for subject with creatinine levels >1.5x institutional ULN
GFR can also be used in place of creatinine or CrCl
Serum total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 X ULN OR
Direct bilirubin ≤ ULN for subjects with total bilirubin levels > 1.5 ULN
AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) ≤ 2.5 X ULN OR ≤ 5 X ULN for subject with liver metastases
International Normalized Ratio (INR) or Prothrombin Time (PT) ≤1.5 X ULN. If subject is on anticoagulant therapy, PT or PTT must be within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulants.
Written informed consent and HIPAA authorization for release of personal health information. NOTE: HIPAA authorization may be included in the informed consent or obtained separately.
Age ≥ 18 years at the time of consent.
ECOG Performance Status (PS) of ≤ 1 within fourteen days of registration for protocol therapy.
Histological or cytological evidence of urothelial cancer of the bladder, urethra, ureter, or renal pelvis. Differentiation with variant histologies (e.g., squamous cell differentiated) will be permitted provided that the predominant histology is urothelial carcinoma.
Metastatic and/or unresectable (cT4b) disease
Must have achieved an objective response (CR/PR) or stable disease (SD) after 4 to 6 cycles of standard first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for mUC (e.g., as per NCCN guidelines). Able to commence study treatment within 2 to 6 weeks of receiving last dose of first-line chemotherapy.
All subjects must have adequate archival tissue available prior to registration (i.e., at least 20 unstained slides or paraffin block). If acceptable archival tissue is not available, the subject must be willing to consent to providing a core or excisional biopsy for research prior to registration for protocol therapy. If archival tissue is not available and there are no sites amenable to biopsy, enrollment must be discussed with the sponsor-investigator on a case by case basis.
Female subjects of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy within three days prior to registration for protocol therapy
Sexually active, pre-menopausal women of childbearing potential must be willing to use an adequate method of contraception or be surgically sterile, or abstain from heterosexual activity for the course of the study through 120 days after the last dose of study drug. Subjects of childbearing potential are those who have not been surgically sterilized or have not been free from menses for > one year.
Male subjects of childbearing potential must agree to use an adequate method of contraception starting with the first dose of study drug through 120 days after the last dose of study drug.
More than one line of prior chemotherapy for metastatic or locally advanced disease, with the following exception:
Prior neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy will not count as line of therapy if completed greater than 12 months prior to initiation of chemotherapy regimen for metastatic or unresectable disease.
Current or past participation in a study of an investigational agent or using an investigational device within four weeks of registration for protocol therapy.
A diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving treatment with systemic steroid therapy or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within seven days prior to registration for protocol therapy.
Prior chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or radiation therapy within two weeks prior to registration for protocol therapy. Note: If the subjects have undergone major surgery, they must have recovered adequately from the toxicity and/or complications from the intervention prior to starting protocol therapy.
A known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or in situ cervical cancer that has undergone potentially curative therapy.
A known active central nervous system (CNS) metastases and/or carcinomatous meningitis. Subjects with previously treated brain metastases may participate provided they are stable (without evidence of progression by imaging for at least four weeks prior to registration for protocol therapy and any neurologic symptoms have returned to baseline), have no evidence of new or enlarging brain metastases, and are not using steroids for at least seven days prior to registration for protocol therapy.
Active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy (eg., thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a form of systemic treatment.
Has evidence of active, non-infectious pneumonitis.
Has a history of interstitial lung disease.
An active infection requiring systemic therapy.
A history or current evidence of any condition, therapy, or laboratory abnormality that might confound the results of the trial, interfere with the subject's participation for the full duration of the trial, or is not in the best interest of the subject to participate, in the opinion of the treating Investigator.
Known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the trial.
Is pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the projected duration of the trial, starting with the screening period through 120 days after the last dose of protocol therapy.
Prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody (including ipilimumab or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T-cell co-stimulation or checkpoint pathways). Examples include nivolumab, MPDL3280, etc.
A known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies).
A known active Hepatitis B (e.g., HBsAg reactive) or Hepatitis C (e.g., HCV RNA [qualitative] is detected).
Receipt of a live vaccine within 30 days prior to registration for protocol therapy.
Unresolved toxicity (i.e., > Grade 1 or above baseline) due to previously administered agents. Exception includes: subjects with ≤ Grade 2 neuropathy are eligible for the study.
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There are 28 Locations for this study
Phoenix Arizona, 85004, United States
Duarte California, 91010, United States
Los Angeles California, 90033, United States
Washington District of Columbia, 20057, United States
Gainesville Florida, 32610, United States
Goshen Indiana, 46526, United States
Indianapolis Indiana, 46202, United States
Indianapolis Indiana, 46219, United States
Indianapolis Indiana, 46256, United States
Munster Indiana, 46321, United States
Baltimore Maryland, 21201, United States
Baltimore Maryland, 21231, United States
Detroit Michigan, 48202, United States
Minneapolis Minnesota, 55455, United States
Saint Louis Missouri, 63110, United States
Omaha Nebraska, 68130, United States
Hackensack New Jersey, 07601, United States
Albuquerque New Mexico, 87106, United States
Buffalo New York, 14263, United States
New York New York, 10029, United States
Rochester New York, 14642, United States
Chapel Hill North Carolina, 27514, United States
Columbus Ohio, 43210, United States
Philadelphia Pennsylvania, 19111, United States
Charleston South Carolina, 29425, United States
Nashville Tennessee, 37232, United States
Salt Lake City Utah, 84112, United States
Norfolk Virginia, 23502, United States
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