Breast Cancer Clinical Trial
Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Versus Tape Measure in Prevention of Lymphedema (PREVENT)
Based upon the current state of science, the investigators are proposing to conduct a randomized clinical trial in which participants are randomized post-surgery to either BIS or circumferential (tape) measurements for follow-up arm measurements. When patients in the BIS group have an L-Dex change that is ≥6.5 units higher than the pre-surgical baseline measure, and when patients in the tape measurement group have a volume change in the at-risk arm that is between ≥ 5% and <10% above pre-surgical baselines (without similar change in non-at-risk arm), both will receive four weeks of 23-32 mm compression sleeve and gauntlet therapy.
The treatment of lymphedema following breast cancer therapy is typically a burdensome multi-modality process that entails different degrees of intensity depending on the severity of fluid accumulation. In breast cancer survivors, it is most commonly initiated after visible swelling occurs in a limb. Common treatments utilized are multi-modality and include massage, compression, exercises, and skin care. The current gold standard treatment for advanced fluid accumulation is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). CDP includes components of compression, lymphatic drainage, skin care, and exercise and is commonly delivered in two phases with the first phase being a several week course delivered in the outpatient clinical setting and the second a home maintenance program. CDP is considered the gold standard due to prospective data demonstrating its efficacy, a series of 537 patients found significant arm volume decreases with CDP and subsequent studies have confirmed volume reductions along with improved quality of life in those patients undergoing CDP. Studies comparing CDP to other treatment modalities are limited but some have favored CDP. CDP is limited in that access to long term prospective follow-up treatment may not take place and it requires significant resources and costs.
Recent studies have suggested that early diagnosis and treatment allow for less burdensome and aggressive therapy utilization moving forward. Increasing data support the idea that early intervention improves outcomes for women with lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. Recent prospective data have shown that with a short course of compression therapy (sleeve and gauntlet), ranging from 4 to 6 weeks, the rate of progression of fluid accumulation is limited. Specifically, the Stout Gergich et al. study provided sound preliminary data to support that four weeks of treatment using a 20-30 mmHg compression garment and gauntlet can, over 18 months of post intervention follow-up, reduce volume and prevent the need for CDP.
These findings are encouraging; however, it should be noted that these studies have significant limitations including small patient numbers, limited follow up, a lack of randomization, and a lack of subclinical detection of increasing extracellular fluid. Therefore, while some data exist that suggest that early intervention with clinically apparent extracellular fluid accumulation is beneficial, there are less data to support the hypothesis that subclinical detection and subsequent early intervention are beneficial. Based on data from these studies, it may be possible to prevent chronic lymphedema with early detection and intervention. Early detection may be best achieved by identifying changes in extracellular fluid instead of change in whole arm volume. Given the potential to improve patient outcomes and possibly prevent chronic lymphedema, additional research is warranted in large randomized trials that address some of the limitations of the previous work.
BIS is a technology designed to identify changes in extracellular fluid. The investigators propose to determine if subclinical detection of increasing extracellular fluid via BIS and subsequent early treatment with four weeks of a compression sleeve and gauntlet results in a reduction in the rates of progression to chronic lymphedema as compared to the same intervention when initiated from use of the most common arm measurement method (tape measurement).
The investigators will secondarily explore selective correlatives related to lymphedema and lymphedema progression. As multiple factors may lead to lymphedema, the influence of potential risk factors on lymphedema progression will be evaluated. Time to actual progression will also be examined. Because lymphedema results in problematic symptoms and diminished quality of life, correlatives using validated instruments will also be examined.
Histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer or Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)
Planned surgical procedure
Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document.
Prior history of breast cancer, breast/chest wall/axillary radiation therapy
Definitive breast surgical procedure prior to enrollment.
Active implanted medical device (e.g., cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators) or patients connected to electronic life support devices or metallic devices that would interfere with BIS measurements.
Conditions that could cause swelling (e.g., pregnancy, congestive heart failure, chronic/acute renal disease, cor pulmonale, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosis, liver failure or cirrhosis, pulmonary edema, and thrombophlebitis, or deep vein thrombosis in arms
Previous treatment for lymphedema of either arm.
Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, unstable angina pectoris, or cardiac arrhythmia.
Psychiatric illness (e.g., diagnosed schizophrenia or documented dementia) that would limit compliance with study requirements.
Known allergy to electrode adhesives or woven knit compression fabrics
Bilateral breast cancer or planned bilateral mastectomy
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There are 10 Locations for this study
Jacksonville Florida, 32224, United States
Kansas City Kansas, 66160, United States
Louisville Kentucky, 40202, United States
Cape Girardeau Missouri, 63703, United States
New York New York, 10032, United States
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, 15212, United States
Nashville Tennessee, 37240, United States
Houston Texas, 77030, United States
Richmond Virginia, 23298, United States
Sydney New South Wales, 2109, Australia
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