Breast Cancer Clinical Trial
Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography for the Evaluation of Pathologic Nipple Discharge
This clinical trial studies contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) for the evaluation of pathologic nipple discharge. CESM is similar to standard mammography, but it includes an intravenous (by vein) injection of an iodine-based contrast, which makes tissue and blood vessels more visible in scans. The goal of this trial is to learn if CESM, is better than standard mammography in quickly and efficiently determining the cause of nipple discharge and detecting breast cancer, if present. CESM may increase the chance of finding breast cancers and lower the risk of having unnecessary biopsies.
I. To evaluate the added sensitivity of contrast enhancement of CESM (represented by the subtracted contrast images of CESM) compared to low energy [LE] images of CESM (full field digital mammogram [FFDM] equivalent) in detecting the causative lesion (invasive malignancy, ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS], atypia, or papilloma) in patients with pathologic nipple discharge (PND).
I. To compare the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of CESM versus DBT and ultrasound (US) in predicting invasive malignancy or DCIS in patients with PND.
II. To compare the accuracy of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and LE in the detection of invasive malignancy or DCIS, as well as in the detection of the causative lesion.
III. To estimate the proportion of cases in which CESM affects the choice of the lesion targeted for a biopsy with any imaging modality.
IV. To evaluate the cancer detection rate and the outcomes (need for additional imaging, biopsies, and final pathologic results) of incidental CESM findings.
I. To evaluate the correlation of blood biomarkers and the presence of invasive cancer and DCIS on pathology in the study patients.
II. To evaluate the role of the CESM enhancement pattern in choosing a precise target for a stereotactic biopsy.
III. To evaluate the effect of CESM on the patient workflow by calculating the time from presentation to the definitive diagnosis.
IV. To evaluate the technical feasibility of using CESM- guided or CESM directed biopsies.
V. In patients who undergo a CESM targeted or CESM directed biopsy we will evaluate the upgrade rate of DCIS to invasive malignancy or high-risk lesions to in-situ or invasive cancer for those patients who will require surgery as a part of their routine clinical care.
VI. In those study patients who undergo breast MRI as a part of their clinical care, the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CESM for the detection of causative lesions will be compared.
Patients receive iodine-based contrast agent intravenously (IV) then undergo CESM over 10-15 minutes. Patients who have not undergone standard of care DBT within 3 months from the study, also undergo DBT.
Women presenting to MDACC for the evaluation of PND as the main or accompanying symptom
Age 25-85 years
Willing to participate in the study and undergo an IV placement, able to undergo iodinated contrast injection, and able to provide informed consent
Reported history of an allergic reaction to iodinated contrast
History of anaphylactic reaction to any substance in the absence of a prior history of uneventful administration of iodine-based IV contrast.
Pregnancy or lactation within 6 months
Breast surgery affecting the symptomatic breast within prior 6 months, if it was located within 5 cm from the nipple
Breast biopsy of the symptomatic breast within the last 2 months, if it was located within 5 cm from the nipple
Breast MRI performed within 24 months
Known breast cancer or active inflammatory process (such as abscess or mastitis) in the breast of concern
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