Multiple Myeloma Clinical Trial
Donor Lymphocyte Infusion After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies
People with blood cancers often receive blood or bone marrow transplants. But even with these treatments, the risk of relapse is high. Researchers want to see if giving the transplant recipient an infusion of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) from their transplant donor early after the transplant can reduce that risk.
To learn if giving donor lymphocytes early after a transplant will help reduce the risk of relapse for people with certain blood cancers.
Adults aged 18-65 with high-risk leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, or multiple myeloma that does not respond well to standard treatments and/or has a high risk of relapse. Healthy potential bone marrow and lymphocyte donor relatives aged 12 and older are also needed.
Participants will be screened with:
Blood and urine tests
Heart and lung tests
Imaging scans. A radioactive substance may be injected in their arm if a PET scan is needed.
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
Some screening tests will be repeated during the study.
Participants will stay at the NIH hospital for about 4 weeks. They will receive a central venous catheter. They will get chemotherapy and other drugs starting 6 days before transplant. Then they will have their transplant. They will receive donor white blood cells 7 days later. They will give blood, bone marrow, urine, and stool samples for research. They must stay near NIH for at least 100 days after transplant.
Participants will have periodic follow-up visits for 5 years.
Healthy donors will have 2-3 visits. They will give blood, bone marrow, white blood cells, and stool samples for research.
Participation will last for 5 years.
High-risk hematologic malignancies generally are incurable without an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), but even HCT is associated with high risk of relapse and very poor overall survival.
Prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) have been used to prevent relapse in high-risk diseases; preemptive DLIs have been used for MRD positivity or decreasing donor chimerism post-transplant; and, therapeutic DLIs have been used to treat overt morphologic relapse post-transplant.
Prophylactic, preemptive, and therapeutic DLIs can cause significant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), both acute and chronic, based on the dose of lymphocytes, timing of the infusion, and use of preparative chemotherapy, although these same factors also may impact on the therapeutic efficacy (graft-versus-tumor immunity of the DLI).
Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) reduces rates of severe acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the immunosuppressive burden after HCT.
In pre-clinical HCT models, very large DLI doses can be given after PTCy, even as early as 24 hours after PTCy treatment, and significant GVHD is not induced, different from that seen for DLI infusions in mice treated with T-cell-depleted HCT, in which fatal GVHD is rapidly induced. This effect in PTCy-treated mice is dependent on Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.
In patients treated at the NIH Clinical Center, DLI has been given for clinical reasons as early as 1 month post-transplant in PTCy-treated patients for infection, falling chimerism, or relapse and did not cause GVHD in these settings when additional conditioning was not given and T-cell-depleting antibodies were not used, both of which may disrupt the regulatory mechanisms induced after PTCy that are needed to control GVHD.
The early integration of immunotherapeutic strategies, such as DLIs, after PTCy has the potential to prevent relapse in patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies, which may result in improved survival in such patients.
-To determine the maximally tolerated dose of DLI that can be safely administered after HLA-matched-related HCT and after HLA-haploidentical HCT
Histologically or cytologically confirmed hematologic malignancy classified as high or very high disease risk by the Refined Disease Risk Index for HCT
At least one potentially suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related or HLA-haploidentical donor.
Karnofsky performance score >=60
Adequate organ function
Open-label, single-center, non-randomized, phase I/II study
All recipient participants will receive myeloablative conditioning, HLA-matched-related or HLA-haploidentical bone marrow HCT, GVHD prophylaxis including post- transplantation cyclophosphamide, and prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion
There will be 2 cohorts of recipient participants: one with HLA-matched-related donors and one with HLA-haploidentical donors
For HLA-matched HCT, the study will proceed to a small, three-level [1) DLI: 1 x 10^6 CD3+ cells/kg on day +7, 2) DLI: 3 x 10^6 CD3+ cells/kg on day +7, 3) DLI: 1 x 10^7 CD3+ cells/kg on day +7] phase I dose escalation study based on the standard 3+3 approach
For HLA-haploidentical HCT, the study will proceed to a small, three-level [1) DLI: 1 x 10^5 CD3+ cells/kg on day +7, 2) DLI: 3 x 10^5 CD3+ cells/kg on day +7, 3) DLI: 1 x 10^6 CD3+ cells/kg on day +7] phase I dose escalation study based on the standard 3+3 approach
Recipient participants will be evaluated for development of steroid-refractory grade III- IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) at day +60 as the dose-limiting toxicity.
Phase II will proceed with DLI at the dose level (separately determined for each HLA cohort) which is associated with 0-1 of 6 recipient participants with steroid refractory grade III-IV aGVHD at day +60 and the least amount of toxicity.
Simon optimal two-stage phase II trial design, to rule out excess steroid refractory grade III-IV aGVHD with the addition of prophylactic DLI, will be used in the phase II portion of the study which will enroll an additional 14 evaluable subjects in each cohort.
Inclusion Criteria - Recipient
Histologically or cytologically confirmed hematologic malignancy classified as high or very high disease risk by the Refined Disease Risk Index for HCT including one of the following:
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with favorable cytogenetics (t(8;21), inv(16), t(15,17)) with induction failure (persistent disease without first achieving remission of any type) or active relapse
AML with intermediate cytogenetics (not classified as favorable or adverse) with induction failure or active relapse (AML with intermediate cytogenetics in morphologic complete remission [CR] with minimal residual disease detectable by any modality also will be eligible)
AML with adverse cytogenetics (complex karyotype with >= 4 abnormalities) regardless of remission status
Low risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (<= 5% blasts, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) with adverse cytogenetics (abnormal chromosome 7 or >= 4 abnormalities) with induction failure or active relapse
High risk MDS (RAEB-1 or RAEB-2) with intermediate-risk cytogenetics (no abnormal chromosome 7 or < 4 abnormalities) with induction failure or active relapse
High risk MDS (RAEB-1 or RAEB-2) with adverse cytogenetics (abnormal chromosome 7 or >= 4 abnormalities) regardless of remission status
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in CR >= 2 or with induction failure or active relapse (ALL in CR1 with minimal residual disease detected also will be eligible)
Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in blast crisis phase
Hodgkin lymphoma with stable or progressive disease
Mantle cell lymphoma with stable or progressive disease
Relapsed Burkitt lymphoma in CR or partial remission (PR)
Aggressive B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) (e.g., diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, transformed indolent B-cell lymphoma) with stable or progressive disease
T-cell NHL with stable or progressive disease
Multiple myeloma (MM) with induction failure as defined by failure to achieve minimal response (CR, Very Good Partial Response [VGPR], or PR) or the development of progressive disease on primary therapy, or MM with active relapse as defined by previously treated myeloma that achieved a molecular response or better that then progressed
Age 18-65 years.
At least one potentially suitable HLA-haploidentical or HLA-matched donor
Karnofsky performance score >=60%
Recipient participants must have adequate organ function as defined below:
Cardiac ejection fraction >=45% by 2D ECHO;
Forced expiratory volume-1 (FEV-1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (corrected for hemoglobin) all of >=50% predicted;
Estimated serum creatinine clearance of >=60 ml/minute/1.73m2 calculated using eGFR in the clinical lab;
Total bilirubin <=2X the upper limit of normal;
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) <=3X the upper limit of normal.
Myeloablative conditioning is toxic to the developing human fetus and is teratogenic. For this reason, the following measures apply:
Women of child-bearing potential (WOCBP) and men must agree to use highly effective contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry and for at least one-year post-transplant.
WOCBP must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 7 days prior to enrollment.
Inclusion Criteria - Donor
-Related donor (age >=12) deemed suitable, eligible, and willing to donate, per clinical evaluations, who are additionally willing to donate blood, bone marrow, and stool for research. Related donors will be evaluated in accordance with existing Standard Policies and Procedures for determination of eligibility and suitability for clinical donation.
Exclusion Criteria - Recipient
Subjects who are receiving any other investigational agents. Prior experimental therapies must have been completed at least 3 weeks prior to the date of beginning conditioning.
Prior myeloablative conditioning for autologous or allogeneic HCT.
Active malignancy of non-hematopoietic type (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) which is metastatic, relapsed/refractory to treatment, or locally advanced and not amenable to curative treatment. This excludes non-melanoma skin cancers.
Uncontrolled intercurrent illness (e.g. severe endocrinopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, profound electrolyte disturbance, active hepatitis, uncontrolled dental infection) that in the opinion of the PI would make it unsafe to proceed with transplantation.
Exclusion Criteria - Donor
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