Myelodysplastic Syndrome Clinical Trial
Decitabine and Venetoclax Treatment as Maintenance Therapy in Patients Post Allograft Stem Cell Transplant
The goal of this interventional clinical trial is to determine if low doses of gentle chemotherapy after bone marrow transplant may prevent relapse and promote an increase in survival and decrease in side effects in participants with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The main question it aims to answer is whether or not providing a new, gentler way of administering chemotherapy will help control leftover cancer with minimal side effects. This treatment involves decitabine and venetoclax. Participants will receive standard post-transplant care. Participants will be administered decitabine once per week with normal transplant follow up visits, and then will take a venetoclax pill about 6 to 8 hours later. Participants will meet their study team at the beginning, midway, and at the end of the trial to receive bone marrow testing. Participants will receive treatment until either one year of therapy, relapse, or recurrent dose limiting toxicity (DLT) despite dose reduction.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. While 60-80% patients can achieve remission, a high rate of relapse mandates consolidative treatment. Unfortunately, 40% of AML patients and 30% of myelodysplastic syndrome patients will relapse after alloSCT, and those who relapse after transplant exhibit poor outcomes. As such, prevention of post-transplant relapse remains a key interest. Maintenance therapy with low-intensity chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy is one strategy that holds promise to reduce post-transplant relapse, controlling residual subclinical disease before frank relapse. As post-transplant maintenance strategies yield mixed results, standard of care maintenance therapy remains an unmet clinical need.
The combination of hypomethylating agents (HMAs), such as decitabine or 5-azacytidine, and the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) inhibitor venetoclax combination has transformed the management of transplant-ineligible AML patient improving median overall survival (OS) to 14.7 months compared to 9.6 months with azacytidine and placebo at the cost of more pronounced cytopenias (Grade 3 and 4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia occurring in 45%/38% and 42%/28% respectively).
Recent work has demonstrated a mechanism by which HMAs cooperate with venetoclax, via priming AML cells for death via the integrated stress response (ISR). The ISR transcription factor activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) is upregulated in a matter of hours after HMA treatment, and in turn activates Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1) (NOXA) that degrades the BCL2-family member myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1), thus creating greater dependence in HMA-exposed malignant cells on BCL2 to avoid BAX/BAK mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), caspase release, and subsequent apoptosis. An irreversible step toward apoptosis is mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) by BAX/BAK oligomers, which releases caspase proteases into the cells, a commitment into apoptosis that is fundamentally counteracted by BCL2-family antiapoptotic proteins, e.g., BCL2, the target of venetoclax inhibition. This mechanism primes AML blasts for venetoclax-mediated toxicity.
Through rigorous pharmacological optimization, it has been shown that the decitabine 5 mg/m2 weekly with a single dose of venetoclax 6 hours after the decitabine can control disease with limited effects normal hematopoietic cells.9 This novel dosing regimen may maximize decitabine/venetoclax anti-leukemic activity while minimizing hematologic toxicity and represents an attractive regimen for post-alloSCT maintenance therapy.
Diagnosis of Acute myeloid leukemia, MDS, MDS/AML with high-risk for post-transplant relapse identified by:
Very high or high risk by CIBMTR Disease Risk Index (DRI) and/or adverse risk by ICC 2022 criteria and/or MDS/AML by ICC 2022 criteria.
Very high or high risk by CIBMTR DRI and/or by IPSS-M > 0.510-12 and/or MDS/AML by ICC 2022 criteria.
Bone marrow myeloblasts <5% at pre-transplant bone marrow aspirate and biopsy with no circulating blasts.
Participants must be planned for or have received alloSCT. Any conditioning regimen intensity or graft source (MRD/MUD/Haplo/UCB) is permitted.
Participants must be 18 years of age or older.
Total bilirubin < 2.0 mg/dL (with the exception of participants with known Gilbert's syndrome, who should have direct bilirubin < 2 × ULN).
Creatinine clearance (CrCl) > 30 ml/min.
ECOG 0-1 performance status.
Subjects must have the ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document and complete study related procedures.
Participants may enroll prior to or after alloSCT. Participants should enroll no later than post transplant day 40, and the the following post-AlloHSCT inclusion criteria must be met in order to initiate the maintenance study treatment:
Successful engraftment defined by absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of ≥500/ul and platelet count of ≥50,000/uL sustained for at least three consecutive days.
These criteria for engraftment should be met on or before Day +50.
No active infection
No GVHD ≥ overall grade II (Grade 1 GVHD of the skin acceptable).
Total bilirubin < 2.0 mg/dL (with the exception of participants with known Gilbert's syndrome, who should have direct bilirubin < 2 × ULN)
CrCl > 30 ml/min.
ECOG 0-1 performance status.
Participants must continue to meet all exclusion criteria
<5% myeloblasts in a bone marrow aspirate with spicules, that is to be obtained, if all the above inclusion criteria are satisfied.
Prior disease progression on HMA/VEN therapy, single agent venetoclax.
Other planned post-transplant maintenance therapy, such as FLT3-ITD targeting agents, as determined by the treating physician
Currently pregnant or breast-feeding. Females of childbearing (FOCBP) potential must have negative serum pregnancy test within 72 hours from treatment start. (NOTE: FOCBP is any biologic female, regardless of sexual or gender orientation, having undergone tubal ligation, or remaining celibate by choice, who has not undergone a documented hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy or has had a menses any time in the preceding 12 months (therefore not naturally post-menopausal for > 12 months)
Uncontrolled comorbid illness that could limit life expectancy or ability to complete study correlates. This includes, but is not limited to:
Uncontrolled concurrent malignancy
Congestive heart failure of NYHA class III/IV. Participants with compensated heart failure are permitted.
Unstable angina pectoris
New or unstable cardiac arrhythmia. Stable or controlled arrhythmias are permitted
Decompensated liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh score ≥12 or a MELD score ≥21
Psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements.
Any other prior or ongoing condition, in the opinion of the investigator, that could adversely affect the safety of the participants or impair the assessment of study results.
FOCBP and males that are unwilling to agree to use dual contraceptive measures (i.e., hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence, condom) prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation. Should a female subject become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, they should inform the treating physician immediately
Sexually active male who is unwilling to use a condom when engaging in any sexual contact with a female with child-bearing potential, beginning at the screening visit and continuing until 4 weeks after taking the last dose of decitabine/venetoclax.
Participants with known active HIV infection, as this will further increase the risk for opportunistic infections. However, participants with chronic HIV with undetectable viral load by PCR, without opportunistic infection, and on a stable regimen of antiretroviral therapy would be eligible.
Known allergy or hypersensitivity to any component of decitabine/venetoclax
Check Your Eligibility
Let’s see if you might be eligible for this study.
What is your age and gender ?
There is 1 Location for this study
How clear is this clinincal trial information?
Introducing, the Journey Bar
Use this bar to access information about the steps in your cancer journey.