Prostate Cancer Clinical Trial
Pragmatic Trial of Metformin for Glucose Intolerance or Increased BMI in Prostate Cancer Patients
Metformin is used widely in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It has off-label indications for use in the prevention of diabetes and in hyperinsulinar obesity. In medical practices, the implementation of metformin for these off-label indications is variable, often at the level of the provider. Multiple retrospective investigations have also shown a clinical benefit in men with prostate cancer who are incidentally treated with metformin.
This pragmatic study will test the feasibility of enrolling patients who have glucose intolerance (as defined by HbA1c of 5.7-6.4%) and/or who have increased BMI (BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2) to a randomized pragmatic study of metformin plus lifestyle modification information versus lifestyle modification information only. For purposes of the scope of this project and the study's feasibility, this will be implemented in a group of prostate cancer patients, who may have additional benefits from metformin.
In this study, subjects with prostate cancer will be randomized to metformin plus educational material for lifestyle modification versus educational material for lifestyle modification alone and followed for up to 10 years. Population-based, retrospective studies have reported improved outcomes, including prostate cancer specific mortality, with the incidental use of metformin in prostate cancer patients. One prominent study is this area from Margel, et al was published in 2013.2 Using the administrative database from several Ontario health districts, men aged 66 with incidental diabetes and prostate cancer antigen (PCA) were studied. The study included over 3000 men and found an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.89) for PCA-specific mortality for each additional 6 months of metformin use. There was no relationship to survival with any other diabetic medication.
In addition to the use of metformin for the prevention of metabolic complications related to obesity and the prevention of diabetes, there are several studies reporting a potential benefit in those with prostate cancer. In a Veterans Administration-based study, more than 87,000 subjects were identified with PCA in the sample.3 The subjects were analyzed in 3 cohorts: 1) no diabetic medication (DM), 2) DM without metformin use and 3) DM with metformin use. Men with DM who were treated with metformin were found to have improved OS (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78 - 0.86, for mortality) compared to men with DM not on metformin. Reduced cancer specific mortality was also observed in the men with DM on metformin (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64 -0.77) in comparison to men with DM not taking metformin (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85 -1.00) - the reference group were those without DM. Despite considerable interest in these findings, there is little if any prospective data on the use of metformin in this setting.
Provision to sign and date the consent form in MHC or otherwise via Epic.
Subjects must have an MHC Account to participate in the study
Be a male aged ≥18 years of age on day of signing the informed consent.
Impaired glucose tolerance and/or overweight, and appropriate to receive metformin, meeting at least one of the following in the last year (timing relative to the consent presentation not start of therapy):
HbA1c of 5.7 - 6.4 %
Have a prostate cancer diagnosis
Have a clinical relationship with a participating provider at a UCHealth facility
On therapy for diabetes including any of the following alone or in combination medications (diet controlled or managed diabetes is allowed - e.g.
diagnosis of Diabetes, but without an active prescription for anti-glycemic medication):
Contraindication for metformin use which include any of the following which are exclusionary (in Epic will use most recent lab values):
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of < 50 ml/minute (calculated according to the formula utilized within Epic).
Known Total Bilirubin ≥3 mg/dL)
Diagnosis of fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver (ICD10: K74)
Diagnosis of alcohol related disorders (ICD10: F10)
Metformin allergy in Epic (ICD10: T50.995A)
Non-English-speaking patient until Spanish language consent form and relevant materials can be made available. Due to the novel aspect of this trial, we plan to get some experience in treating approximately the first 50 patients, make any changes needed in the study operations and then implement a Spanish consent, as feasible.
Taking any medication with a known class D or higher drug interaction with metformin, including:
The use of any carbonic anhydrase inhibitors since they are a risk factor for lactic acidosis, including:
Any treating investigator concern, related to tolerance, safety, adherence or for any other reason
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