Prostate Cancer Clinical Trial
Standard Versus Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Endometrial or Cervical Cancer
RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays and other types of radiation to kill tumor cells. Specialized radiation therapy that delivers a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor may kill more tumor cells and cause less damage to normal tissue.
PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying two different methods of radiation and their side effects and comparing how well they work in treating endometrial and cervical cancer after surgery.
To determine if pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces acute gastrointestinal toxicity in the 5th week (after 23-25 fractions) of pelvic radiation as measured with the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC) instrument.
To determine if grade 2+ gastrointestinal toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 [CTCAE v. 4.0]) is reduced with IMRT compared to conventional whole-pelvis radiation therapy (WPRT).
To determine if grade 2+ hematologic toxicity (CTCAE v. 4.0) is reduced with IMRT compared to conventional WPRT.
To determine if urinary toxicity is reduced with IMRT using the EPIC urinary domain.
To validate EPIC bowel and urinary domains in women undergoing either IMRT pelvic radiation treatment or four-field pelvic radiation treatment for endometrial or cervical cancer.
To assess the impact of pelvic IMRT on quality of life using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) with cervix subscale.
To determine if there is any difference in local-regional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival between patients treated with IMRT as compared to conventional WPRT.
To perform a health-utilities analysis to measure the financial impact of pelvic IMRT via the EQ-5D instrument.
To identify molecular predictors of radiation toxicity and novel circulating cancer biomarkers.
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study. Patients are stratified according to type of cancer (endometrial vs cervical), chemotherapy (none vs 5 courses of weekly cisplatin at 40 mg/m²), and radiation dose (45 Gy vs 50.4 Gy). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.
Arm I: Patients undergo standard (3-dimensional) radiation therapy 5 days a week for up to 5-6 weeks.
Arm II: Patients undergo intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) 5 days a week for up to 5-6 weeks.
Some patients receive cisplatin IV over 1 hour on day 1. Treatment continues weekly for 5 weeks, concurrently with radiation therapy, in the absence of unacceptable toxicity or disease progression.
Tissue and blood samples may be collected for biomarker and correlative analysis.
Quality of life may be assessed by questionnaires (including the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite [EPIC], the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G, Version 4], the EQ-5D, and the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events - Patient-Reported Outcome [PRO-CTCAE]) instruments at baseline and periodically during and after study therapy.
After completion of study therapy, patients are followed every 6 months for the first 2 years and then annually for 5 years.
Pathologically proven diagnosis of endometrial or cervical cancer.
Patients must have undergone a hysterectomy (total abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy or radical hysterectomy or total laparoscopic hysterectomy) for carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium within 49 days prior to registration. Performance of a bilateral salpingooophorectomy will be at the treating surgeon's discretion.
Appropriate stage for protocol entry, including no distant metastases, based upon the following minimum diagnostic workup:
3.1 History/physical examination within 45 days prior to registration;
3.2 CT, MRI or positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET-CT) including the abdomen and pelvis should be performed for initial radiological staging. This may be performed pre- or post-surgery within 90 days prior to registration. Imaging performed post-operatively should show no evidence of residual disease. Any evidence of malignancy identified on pre-operative imaging should have been completely resected surgically prior to protocol treatment.
3.3 Chest CT or chest x-ray must be performed within 90 days prior to registration (unless a PET-CT has been performed)
Zubrod Performance Status 0-2
Age ≥ 18;
Complete blood count (CBC)/differential obtained within 14 days prior to registration on study, with adequate bone marrow function defined as follows:
6.1 Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1,500 cells/mm3;
6.2 Platelets ≥ 100,000 cells/mm3;
6.3 Hemoglobin ≥ 8.0 g/dl (Note: The use of transfusion or other intervention to achieve Hgb ≥ 8.0 g/dl is acceptable.)
For patients receiving chemotherapy:
7.1 Within 14 days prior to registration, serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 mg/dL and calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 50 cc/min. Both tests must be within these limits. The creatinine clearance should be calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula: (See Section 7.3.1) 7.2 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ≤ 2 x upper limit of normal (ULN) 7.3 Bilirubin ≤ 2 x ULN 7.4 Alkaline phosphatase, Mg, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and electrolytes must be obtained and recorded 8 Endometrial Cancer: 8.1 Patients with the following histologic features are eligible for pelvic radiation therapy without weekly cisplatin:
<50% myometrial invasion, grade 3 adenocarcinoma without uterine serous carcinoma (USC) or clear cell histology
≥50% myometrial invasion grade 1-2 adenocarcinoma without USC or clear cell histology 8.2 Patients with the following histologic features may be treated with pelvic radiation with or without weekly cisplatin. The decision to add weekly cisplatin for these patients is at the treating physician's discretion:
≥50% myometrial invasion, grade 3 including USC and clear cell carcinoma.
International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage II endometrial cancer of any grade including USC and clear cell carcinoma.
FIGO 2009 IIIC1 (pelvic lymph node positive only, para-aortic nodes negative if removed) including USC and clear cell carcinoma. Note: If para-aortic nodes are not removed, CT abdomen or PET CT must demonstrate no evidence of lymphadenopathy. 9. Cervical Cancer: 9.1 Patients with the following pathology findings may be treated with pelvic radiation with or without weekly cisplatin at the treating physician's discretion. The decision to add weekly cisplatin for these patients is at the treating physician's discretion. 9.1.1 Patients with intermediate risk features including two of the following histologic findings after radical hysterectomy:
1/3 or more stromal invasion
Lymph-vascular space invasion
Large clinical tumor diameter (> 4 cm) 9.1.2 Patients with cervical cancer treated with a simple hysterectomy with negative margins 9.2 Patients with any of the following criteria following radical hysterectomy are eligible for this study and must receive weekly cisplatin:
Positive resected pelvic nodes and para-aortic nodes negative if removed. Note: If para-aortic nodes are not removed, CT abdomen or PET CT must demonstrate no evidence of lymphadenopathy.
Microscopic parametrial invasion with negative margins. 10. Patient must provide study specific informed consent prior to study entry. 11. Willingness and ability to complete the bowel and urinary domains of the EPIC prior to registration
Patients with para-aortic nodal disease or who require extended field radiotherapy beyond the pelvis.
Patients with histology consisting of endometrial stromal sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma or malignant mixed mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT or carcinosarcoma)
Patients who exceed the weight/size limits of the treatment table or CT scanner.
Mental status changes or bladder control problems that make the patient unable to comply with bladder-filling instructions.
Patients with evidence of metastatic disease outside of the pelvis.
Patients with positive or close (< 3 mm) resection margins
Prior invasive malignancy (except non-melanomatous skin cancer) unless disease free for a minimum of 3 years.
Prior radiation therapy to the pelvis
Patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. 10 Severe, active co-morbidity, defined as follows:
10.1 Unstable angina and/or congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization within the last 6 months
10.2 Transmural myocardial infarction within the last 6 months
10.3 Acute bacterial or fungal infection requiring intravenous antibiotics at the time of registration
10.4 Other major medical illness which requires hospitalization or precludes study therapy at the time of registration
10.5 Hepatic insufficiency resulting in clinical jaundice and/or coagulation defects; note, however,that laboratory test coagulation parameters are not required for entry into this protocol
10.6 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based upon current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition; note, however, that HIV testing is not required for entry into this protocol. The need to exclude patients with AIDS from this protocol is necessary because the treatments involved in this protocol may be significantly immunosuppressive. Protocol-specific requirements may also exclude immunocompromised patients.
11. Patients with prior treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy 12. Women who are breastfeeding
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