Acute Myeloid Leukemia Clinical Trial
Antimicrobial Revision in Persistent Febrile Neutropenia
Febrile neutropenia is often seen in patients with hematologic malignancies who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy. These patients are usually placed on posaconazole prophylaxis upon starting chemotherapy. If an episode of febrile neutropenia occurs, generally an anti-pseudomonal beta lactam, like cefepime or piperacillin-tazobactam, is initiated. In patients who continue to fever on these agents, the optimal method of antimicrobial revision has yet to be determined.
In this prospective, randomized, open-label, single-center trial, the primary objective is to compare the clinical efficacy of two approaches to antimicrobial revision among patients with persistent febrile neutropenia. Neutropenic patients on cefepime or piperacillin-tazobactam who continue to fever for greater than 96 hours will be randomized to receive either meropenem or micafungin dosed according to local guidelines. The primary outcome is a global success rate including a composite of defervescence within 72 hours of meropenem or micafungin initiation, absence of signs or symptoms of infection, and no modification to antimicrobial regimen after initiation of meropenem or micafungin. The secondary outcomes to be collected include in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice, hospital length of stay, time to defervescence, days of therapy of meropenem or micafungin, rate of Clostridioides difficile infection on meropenem or micafungin, and cause of any proven breakthrough infection while on meropenem or micafungin.
≥ 18 years of age
Diagnosis of hematologic malignancy
Receiving chemotherapy as treatment of hematologic malignancy
Neutropenia defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≤ 500 cells/mm3 or an ANC ≤ 1000 cells/mm3 with a predicted decline to < 500 cells/mm3 within 48 hours
Prescribed cefepime or piperacillin-tazobactam as initial treatment for febrile neutropenia
Persistent fever for ≥ 96 hours since initiation of cefepime or piperacillin-tazobactam OR recurrent fever that occurs ≥ 96 hours since initiation of cefepime or piperacillin-tazobactam (fever defined as single temperature of ≥ 38.3°C (101°F) or a temperature of ≥ 38°C (100.4°F) on two consecutive measures separated by at least one hour)
Receipt of posaconazole as neutropenia prophylaxis for at least 3 calendar days
Clinically or microbiologically confirmed infection at time of enrollment, For example, a positive culture or rapid diagnostic test, positive imaging (X-ray, CT, MRI) or biomarker, such as galactomannan, that is consistent with infection
History of infection with organism known to be resistant to meropenem or micafungin
Documented allergy to carbapenems or echinocandins
Concomitant use of valproic acid
Uncontrolled seizure disorder
Previous enrollment in this study
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