Breast Cancer Clinical Trial
Abbreviated MRI Protocol: Initial Experience With Dotarem® (Gadoterate Meglumine)
Standard breast MRI studies often have lengthy protocols that make them inherently expensive and time-consuming. Several studies of the use of abbreviated MRI protocols have shown that the shorter protocols have diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the conventional full MRI protocol. There are also promising results of ultrafast DCE-MRI studies with shorter breast MRI protocols that provide not only morphologic but also valuable kinetic information about a lesion. The shorter imaging times achieved with the abbreviated and the ultrafast DCE-MRI protocols have the potential to increase efficiency and lower cost by decreasing time in the MRI suite, which in turn may make breast MRI accessible for population-based mass screening. The focus of the proposed research is the investigation of an abbreviated MRI protocol with ultrafast imaging using Dotarem® (Gadoterate Meglumine).
Breast cancer is second to lung cancer as the leading cause of death among women in the United States. Over 40,000 women were estimated to die of breast cancer in 2016. Early detection is key to improved survival, and overall prognosis is directly linked to the stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. The 5-year relative survival rate has increased since the mid 1970's, in part owing to improvements in early breast cancer detection with screening mammography. Screening with mammography is associated with a 16-40% relative reduction in breast cancer mortality among women aged 40-74 years old, and mammography is the most cost-effective method of breast cancer screening. However, cancers can be missed at mammography, particularly in women with dense breasts. Screening with mammography alone may be insufficient in the screening of women who are at high risk of breast cancer. The need for more effective screening strategies to supplement mammography in these groups of women has led to the use of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast MRI. Of the available modalities for evaluation of the breast, MRI has been found to have the highest sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer, irrespective of breast density.
On the basis of evidence from nonrandomized trials and observational studies, breast MRI is indicated as a supplement to mammography for patients at high risk with greater than 20% relative lifetime risk. This cohort of women includes those with: a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 genetic mutation, an approximately 20-25% or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer according to risk assessment tools, a strong family history of beast or ovarian cancer, a history of being treated for Hodgkin's disease and certain genetic syndromes (i.e. Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome or Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome). However, for women at intermediate risk, including those with dense breast tissue, screening MRI in the United States is not cost-effective. The cost-effectiveness of screening breast MRI depends on estimated breast cancer incidence and examination cost. The rationale for limiting supplemental screening breast MRI to those at greatest risk is in part due to its high cost.
Investigators have looked at ways of reducing the cost of breast MRI to improve access to it as a supplement screening method for women who are not necessarily in the highest risk group. One way to achieve the efficiency and rapid throughput found with screening mammography is to shorten screening breast MRI protocols, decrease image acquisition time, and shorten image interpretation time. Study results have suggested that shorter protocols and shorter acquisition times can be achieved with maintenance of diagnostic accuracy comparable to that obtained with conventional MRI protocols. Use of these abbreviated MRI protocols could result in lower cost and faster throughput, increasing availability and providing women with dense breasts or at intermediate risk (lifetime risk, 15-20%) greater access to breast MRI.
Women between the ages of 18-80.
Women with diagnostic imaging findings highly suspicious for breast cancer (BI-RADS category 4 or 5) or known breast cancer (BI-RADS category 6). Per BI-RADS lexicon, category 4 lesions carry a malignancy risk of 2-95% and category 5 lesions carry a malignancy risk of >95%.
Women with a history of adverse reactions to contrast media.
Women with GFR below 30 mL/min/1.73m².
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