Breast Cancer Clinical Trial
Low-Dose Tamoxifen Citrate in Reducing Breast Cancer Risk in Radiation-Induced Cancer Survivors
Estrogen can cause the growth of breast cancer cells. Hormone therapy using tamoxifen citrate may fight breast cancer by blocking the use of estrogen by the tumor cells
This phase IIb trial studies how well low-dose tamoxifen citrate works in reducing breast cancer risk in radiation-induced cancer survivors.
I. To determine the impact of a two-year course of low-dose tamoxifen (tamoxifen citrate) administered at 5 mg per day on surrogate endpoint biomarkers of breast cancer (BC) risk, including: mammographic breast density (MBD), an established radiographic biomarker of BC risk; cytomorphology and proliferative index, tissue biomarkers closely linked to BC risk; and sex steroid hormones and insulin growth factors, circulating biomarkers of BC risk.
II. To establish safety and tolerability of this low-dose tamoxifen regimen, assessing both objective measures (lipid profiles, clotting factors and bone metabolism markers) and patient-reported outcomes.
III. To examine the modifying effect of demographic, clinical, and molecular characteristics on the risk: benefit ratio from this two-year low dose tamoxifen intervention.
IV. To explore the relationship between this low-dose tamoxifen regimen and clinical measures of efficacy (new breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS] diagnoses) and toxicity (thromboembolic events, reports of hot flashes and gynecological symptoms, liver function abnormalities, and other cancer diagnoses).
OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.
ARM I: Patients receive tamoxifen citrate orally (PO) once daily for 24 months in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
ARM II: Patients receive placebo PO once daily for 24 months in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up periodically for up to 10 years.
Exposure to radiation therapy (RT) delivered to the chest, axilla, and/or supraclavicular areas at a cumulative dose of 12 Gy or more by age 40 years; in addition, patients who received total body irradiation by age 40 may be considered
No evidence of active disease from their primary cancer for at least 2 continuous years prior to registration; the indication for RT is not specified but cannot be for primary breast cancer; common examples include, but are not limited to: lymphoma, leukemia, sarcoma, and Wilms tumor occurring in pediatric patients, and lymphoma, leukemia, and sarcoma occurring in young adults; primary cancer therapy must have been completed at least 6 months prior to registration
Well-defined menopausal status falling into one of the following categories:
Premenopausal, defined as age at registration 45 years old or younger with regular monthly period for at least 6 consecutive months prior to registration
Postmenopausal, defined as continuous absence of menstruation for 12 months OR status-post bilateral oophorectomy OR follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level in the postmenopausal range
Subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN) other than those listed below diagnosed within 2 years of study entry; patients with the listed indolent or pre-invasive neoplasms may be eligible if diagnosed within 2 years and all treatment was completed at least 6 months prior to registration:
Non-melanoma cancers of the skin
Cervical cancer confined to the cervix or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or breast intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) (includes atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]), or
Superficial or non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
For women with a prior history of DCIS or breast IEN, only one breast could have been involved and all therapy must have been completed at least 6 months prior to registration; in addition women with a prior history of invasive breast cancer may also be eligible, as long as only one breast was involved, they were diagnosed at least 2 years prior to study entry, and therapy was completed at least 6 months prior to study entry
Bilateral breast implants or status-post bilateral prophylactic mastectomy
Evidence of malignant breast disease on any form of breast imaging; the study only requires annual mammography; however, annual breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered standard of care in this patient population (per Children's Oncology Group [COG] or National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN] follow-up guidelines), and breast ultrasound may be indicated if a palpable lesion is detected on screening clinical breast exam; abnormal imaging may require additional radiographs and/or breast biopsy; patients who are found to have benign breast disease with or without atypia may continue on study as long as there is no evidence of malignancy; if there is evidence of malignancy, and only one breast is involved, they may be reapproached 6 months after completion of therapy for consideration of the trial
Baseline categorical mammographic density scored as BIRAD 1, or extremely fatty, in both breasts; if the patient has a prior history of IEN (DCIS, LCIS, or atypical hyperplasia), the contralateral breast must not have a mammographic density score of BIRAD 1; this determination will be made at the local site
Current or recent use (within 6 months of registration or baseline mammogram, whichever is first) of any of the following: systemic hormone replacement therapy (includes oral or transdermal formulations); Vagifem and Estring, two formulations of locally applied vaginal estrogen associated with minimal systemic absorption, may be allowed; other estrogen-containing vaginal creams, while not an exclusion, should be avoided whenever possible; patients with a history of hormone modifying herbal supplements are eligible, but patients will be asked to avoid their use after on study
Current or recent use (within 6 months of registration or baseline mammogram, whichever is first) of any of the following: hormonal forms of contraception (includes oral, transdermal, implanted, and injectable formulations): selective estrogen receptor modifiers; aromatase inhibitors; GnRH analogs; androgens or antiandrogens
Concurrent use of warfarin and strong inhibitors or CYP2D6 will not be allowed
A personal history or a strong family of thromboembolism, including deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolus (PE), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA); a personal history of transient ischemic attack (TIA) or retinal vein thrombosis will also not be allowed; in addition, patients with a condition known to increase hypercoagulability, such as Factor V Leiden disease, will be excluded; patients with atrial fibrillation will be excluded, due to risk of CVA, but patients with coronary artery disease or congestive heart failure without atrial fibrillation will be allowed to participate
Current intrauterine pregnancy or plans to become pregnant within two years; in addition, currently nursing mothers will be excluded
Serum creatinine > 2X the institutional norm
Total bilirubin > 2X the institutional norm
Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) > 2X the institutional norm
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There are 13 Locations for this study
Birmingham Alabama, 35233, United States
Duarte California, 91010, United States
Aurora Colorado, 80045, United States
Chicago Illinois, 60637, United States
Boston Massachusetts, 02115, United States
Ann Arbor Michigan, 48109, United States
Minneapolis Minnesota, 55455, United States
Rochester Minnesota, 55905, United States
Winston-Salem North Carolina, 27157, United States
Memphis Tennessee, 38105, United States
Houston Texas, 77030, United States
Seattle Washington, 98109, United States
Toronto Ontario, M5G 2, Canada
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