Bladder Cancer Clinical Trial
Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Without Cystectomy for Patients With Muscle Invasive Bladder Urothelial Cancer and Select Genetic Alterations
This phase II trial studies how well gemcitabine hydrochloride and cisplatin work in treating participants with invasive bladder urothelial cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hydrochloride and cisplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading.
I. To determine the 3-year event free survival, defined as the proportion of patients without invasive or metastatic recurrence following definitive gemcitabine hydrochloride (gemcitabine) and cisplatin (standard or dose-dense) chemotherapy in those patients whose pre-treatment transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) tumors harbor deleterious DDR gene alterations and who achieve < cT1 response to chemotherapy.
I. To determine the clinical response rate (< cT1) for patients harboring deleterious DDR gene alterations following dose dense gemcitabine and cisplatin.
II. To determine the bladder-intact and overall survival for DDR-altered patients with < cT1.
III. For DDR gene altered patients who elect radical cystectomy despite < cT1, to determine the pT0 rate in this patient population.
IV. To determine the pathologic response rate at cystectomy and 3-year recurrence-free and overall survival for patients without DDR mutations who are registered onto this trial.
V. To assess the local treatment burden (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG] therapy, resection of non-invasive disease, checkpoint blockade) over time in the bladder-sparing group.
VI. To determine the bladder-intact disease-free survival in patients who elect to undergo chemoradiation therapy in the DDR mutant group and the DDR wild-type group.
Participants receive gemcitabine hydrochloride intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1, cisplatin IV on days 1 and 2, and pegfilgrastim subcutaneously (SC) on day 3. Treatment repeats every 14 days for up to 6 courses in the absence of disease progression or unaccepted toxicity. Participants are then assigned to 1 of 2 arms.
ARM I: Participants with DDR gene alteration and disease stage < cT1 undergo bladder sparing.
ARM II: Participants with DDR gene alteration and disease stage >= cT1 or participants without DDR gene alteration undergo radical cystectomy or chemoradiotherapy.
After completion of study treatment, participants are followed up for 5 years.
Step 1 Patient Registration Eligibility Criteria
Histologically confirmed muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Urothelial carcinoma invading into the prostatic stroma with no histologic muscle invasion is allowed, provided the extent of disease is confirmed via imaging and/or examination under anesthesia (EUA). The diagnostic TURBT sample must have been obtained within 60 days prior to registration
20 unstained slides (10 micron thickness) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pre-treatment diagnostic transurethral resection (TUR) specimen available (for sequencing), with 2 (5 micron) slides at the start and end of the 20 slides, for a total of 22 unstained slides. An FFPE block is also acceptable
Clinical stage T2-T4aN0/xM0 disease
Medically appropriate candidate for radical cystectomy as assessed by surgeon
No concomitant multifocal carcinoma in situ; a single focus is allowed
A single muscle-invasive bladder tumor measuring ≤5 cm in size as defined by the surgeons at cystoscopic evaluation. When documented, pathologic size at cystoscopy and TURBT will take precedence over radiographic measurements of tumor size.
No clinical or radiographic evidence for locally advanced or metastatic disease
No prior anti-PD-1 or anti PD-L1 therapies, or systemic chemotherapy within the past 5 years (prior intravesical induction immunotherapy for non-muscle invasive disease is allowed, defined as BCG x6 doses and maintenance therapy); BCG refractory disease, defined as disease recurrence within 3 months of BCG therapy, is not allowed. Intravesical chemotherapy is allowed.
No prior radiation therapy to the bladder or prostate
No major surgery or radiation therapy =< 4 weeks of registration (TURBT is allowed).
Not pregnant and not nursing. This study involves an agent that has known genotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. For women of childbearing potential only, a negative pregnancy test done =< 14 days prior to registration is required
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,000/mm^3
Platelet count >= 100,000/mm^3
Calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 55 mL/min using formula per institutional standard or investigator's discretion. The same formula should be used to calculate all subsequent creatinine clearances.
Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
* (For patients with documented Gilbert's syndrome Total Bilirubin =< 3 x ULN)
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 2.5 x ULN
Alkaline phosphatase =< 2.5 x ULN
No evidence of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV heart disease
No ongoing cardiac dysrhythmias of National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5.0 grade >= 2
No pre-existing sensory grade >= 2 neuropathy
No pre-existing grade >= 2 hearing loss
No serious intercurrent medical or psychiatric illness, including serious active infection
None of the following within the 6 months prior to study drug administration: myocardial infarction, severe/unstable angina, coronary/peripheral artery bypass graft, symptomatic congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, or transient ischemic attack
No known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illness or other active infection. HIV-positive patients on combination antiretroviral therapy are ineligible because of the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions with the drugs used in this trial. In addition, these patients are at increased risk of lethal infections when treated with marrow-suppressive therapy. Appropriate studies will be undertaken in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, when indicated
No history of allergic reaction attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to the agents used in this study
No concurrent treatment on another clinical trial; supportive care trials or non-therapeutic trials (e.g., quality of life) are allowed
No prior malignancy except for: adequately treated basal or squamous cell skin cancer, in situ cervical cancer, adequately treated stage I or II cancer from which the patient is currently in complete remission, or any other cancer from which the patient has been disease free for five years. Patients with localized prostate cancer who are being followed by an active surveillance program are also eligible
Step 2 Patient Registration Eligibility Criteria
Patients must have completed 4 or more cycles of protocol-directed chemotherapy and DDR gene results must be available
Step 3 Patient Registration Eligibility Criteria (only patients with a DDR gene alteration)
Deleterious alteration within 1 or more of 9 pre-defined DDR genes within the pre-treatment TURBT deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Cystoscopy and imaging performed to determine stage/treatment assignment
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